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#2666 - 06/29/08 08:55 AM Brake Pad Inspection  
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Brake Pad Inspection
Warning: Refer to Brake Dust Warning in the Preface section.

Inspect the disc brake pads at regular intervals, or whenever the tire and wheel assemblies are removed from the vehicle.

If replacement is necessary, always replace disc brake pads in axle sets.

Inspect both edges of the disc brake pad friction surfaces. The highest rate of wear normally occurs at the trailing edge of the disc brake pads.

Inspect the thickness of the disc brake pads in order to ensure that they have not worn prematurely. The disc brake pad wear should be approximately even per axle set.

Both front and rear disc brake pads have integral, audible wear sensors. When the disc brake pad wear reaches the minimum allowable thickness, the wear sensor contacts the disc brake rotor (2). The wear indicator will then produce an audible, high-pitched warning noise during wheel rotation.

Replace the disc brake pads when the friction surface is worn to within 0.76 mm (0.030 in) of the mounting plates.

Remove the brake calipers and inspect the friction surfaces of the inner and outer disc brake pads to ensure that they are level.
Place the disc brake pad friction surfaces together and measure the gap between the surfaces. If more than 0.13 mm (0.005 in) gap exists midway between the length of the disc brake pads, replace the disc brake pads.

Verify that any disc brake pad shims that may be required are in place and not damaged or excessively corroded. Replace any missing or damaged shims in order to preserve proper disc brake performance.

Replace the disc brake pads if any have separated from the mounting plates.

Inspect the disc brake pads friction surfaces for cracks, fractures, or damage which may cause noise or otherwise impair disc brake performance.


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#2667 - 06/29/08 08:57 AM Re: Brake Pad Inspection [Re: teamzr1]  
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Brake Warning System Description and Operation

Brake System Indicators and Messages

Brake Warning Indicator

The instrument panel cluster (IPC) illuminates the brake warning indicator when the following occurs:

The IPC detects that the park brake is applied. The park brake switch signal circuit is pulled to ground.

The IPC detects a low brake fluid condition. The brake fluid level sensor signal circuit is pulled to ground for 15 seconds.

The electronic brake control module (EBCM) detects a malfunction with the antilock brake system. The IPC receives a serial data message from the EBCM requesting illumination.

The IPC detects a loss of communications with the EBCM.

The IPC performs the bulb check at the start of each ignition cycle. The indicators illuminate for approximately 5 seconds.

The Display Test is performed with a scan tool.

CHECK BRAKE FLUID Message

The driver information center (DIC) displays the CHECK BRAKE FLUID message when the IPC detects that the brake fluid level is below the normal operating range for 15 seconds.


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#2668 - 06/29/08 08:58 AM Re: Brake Pad Inspection [Re: teamzr1]  
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Hydraulic Brake System Description and Operation

System Component Description

The hydraulic brake system consists of the following:

Hydraulic Brake Master Cylinder Fluid Reservoir: Contains supply of brake fluid for the hydraulic brake system.

Hydraulic Brake Master Cylinder: Converts mechanical input force into hydraulic output pressure.
Hydraulic output pressure is distributed from the master cylinder through two hydraulic circuits, supplying diagonally-opposed wheel apply circuits.

Hydraulic Brake Pressure Balance Control System: Regulates brake fluid pressure delivered to hydraulic brake wheel circuits, in order to control the distribution of braking force.

Pressure balance control is achieved through dynamic rear proportioning (DRP), which is a function of the ABS modulator. Refer to ABS Description and Operation for specific information on the operation of DRP.

Hydraulic Brake Pipes and Flexible Brake Hoses: Carries brake fluid to and from hydraulic brake system components.

Hydraulic Brake Wheel Apply Components: Converts hydraulic input pressure into mechanical output force.


System Operation

Mechanical force is converted into hydraulic pressure by the master cylinder, regulated to meet braking system demands by the pressure balance control system, and delivered to the hydraulic brake wheel circuits by the pipes and flexible hoses.

The wheel apply components then convert the hydraulic pressure back into mechanical force which presses linings against rotating brake system components.


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#2669 - 06/29/08 09:00 AM Re: Brake Pad Inspection [Re: teamzr1]  
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Brake Assist System Description and Operation

System Component Description

The brake assist system consists of the following:

Brake Pedal: Receives, multiplies and transfers brake system input force from driver.

Brake Pedal Pushrod: Transfers multiplied input force received from brake pedal to brake booster.

Vacuum Brake Booster:

Uses source vacuum to decrease effort required by driver when applying brake system input force. At rest, source vacuum is applied to both sides of the vacuum diaphragm for single boosters, or to both sides of each of the diaphragms for tandem boosters.

Return springs maintain the booster in a rest position. When brake system input force is applied, vacuum to the rear of the diaphragm(s) is cut off, and air at atmospheric pressure is admitted in its place. This provides a decrease in brake pedal effort required. When input force is removed, vacuum again replaces atmospheric pressure within the booster.

Vacuum Source:

Supplies force used by vacuum brake booster to decrease brake pedal effort. The primary source for vacuum is typically the vehicle's internal combustion engine. Some vehicles may use a vacuum pump to ensure and adequate supply of vacuum under various operating conditions, such as during cold start-up, heavy throttle, and high altitude.

Vacuum Pump Relay:

Vehicles equipped with a vacuum pump will typically be equipped with a relay used to provide voltage to the vacuum pump motor, when commanded by the powertrain controller.

Vacuum Monitoring System:

Provides a feedback voltage signal relative to the amount of vacuum available for the vacuum power brake booster. This typically consists of a vacuum sensor mounted either into the power vacuum brake booster, integrated with the vacuum check valve, or in-line within the vacuum hose. The sensor feedback is typically monitored by the powertrain control module(s).

Vacuum Source Control:

If equipped with a system to monitor available levels of vacuum for the brake assist system, the powertrain control module(s) typically perform the primary monitoring function.

The powertrain controller will typically monitor the feedback signal of a vacuum sensor, as it relates to available vacuum at the vacuum power brake booster. The powertrain controller uses the information to make sure available vacuum remains above predetermined levels.

If additional vacuum is required, the powertrain controller may reactivate engine cylinders, if equipped, or command a vacuum pump ON, if equipped, and/or may alter the operation of various other engine controls and devices, as necessary.

Vacuum Source Delivery System:

Enables delivery and retention of source vacuum for vacuum brake booster. This typically consists of a vacuum check valve and a vacuum hose or pipe. If a vacuum pump is used, additional check valves may be used.


System Operation

Brake system input force from the driver is multiplied by the brake pedal and transferred by the pedal pushrod to the hydraulic brake master cylinder. Effort required to apply the brake system is reduced by the operation of the vacuum brake booster.

When brake system force is applied, vacuum to the rear of the diaphragm(s) is cut off, and air at atmospheric pressure is admitted in its place.

The vacuum acts to pull the diaphragm(s) forward, while the atmospheric pressure acts to push from behind. As a result, the amount of effort required by the driver is reduced. When input force is removed, vacuum again replaces atmospheric pressure within the vacuum power brake booster to help return the booster to rest. Return springs maintain the system in a rest position.

If the vehicle is equipped with a vacuum monitoring system, the powertrain control module(s) typically will alter powertrain functions and/or command the vacuum pump ON, if equipped, to provide for the vacuum needs of the brake assist system, as operating conditions warrant.


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